[39] Over the coming decades more guilds were created, often becoming increasingly involved in both local and national politics, although the guilds merchants were largely replaced by official groups established by new royal charters. Most of them are merchants manifesting the significance of economic trade and businesses that emerged during that time. The first fundamental fact is a long-term rise in the population. [120] Metalworking continued to grow and in particular, pewter working which generated exports second only to cloth. Many sprang up along the sides of the road on the trading routes. [31] There were some exceptions, such as very high quality cloths from Stamford and Lincoln, including the famous "Lincoln Scarlet" dyed cloth. [102], One result of the economic and political tensions was the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 in which widespread rural discontent was followed by invasion of London involving thousands of rebels. (2001) "The Trade of Fifteenth Century Cambridge and its Region," in Hicks (ed) 2001. Danziger, Danny and John Gillingham. [44] The practice increased in the next century and over 2,200 charters were issued to markets and fairs by English kings between 1200 and 1270. The rapid growth of towns promoted commercial solutions to the basic problems of supply, and this in turn encouraged specialised agriculture. (2008). There were two distinctive core areas for urban growth: northern Italy and the territories bordering the southern part of the North Sea and the English Channel and extending up the Rhine. [50], The Jewish community in England continued to provide essential money lending and banking services that were otherwise banned by the usury laws, and grew in the 12th century by Jewish immigrants fleeing the fighting around Rouen. [49][nb 1] One response to this was the creation of the Company of the Staple, a group of merchants established in English-held Calais in 1314 with royal approval, who were granted a monopoly on wool sales to Europe. The economics of English towns and trade in the Middle Ages is the economic history of English towns and trade from the Norman invasion in 1066, to the death of Henry VII in 1509. [130] Meanwhile, the growth of the indigenous England merchant class in the major cities, especially London, gradually crowded out the foreign merchants upon whom the great chartered fairs had largely depended. [97] Many land owners attempted to vigorously enforce rents payable through agricultural service rather than money through their local manor courts, leading to many village communities attempting to legally challenge local feudal practices using the Domesday Book as a legal basis for their claims. Lee, John. The fall of the Roman empire, which had unified Europe, led to the Middle Ages. [7] William I brought over wealthy Jews from the Rouen community in Normandy to settle in London, apparently to carry out financial services for the crown. Ramsay, Nigel. It gradually began to slow, between about 1200 and 1275, and then it finally leve… Traditional historiography has overestimated the significance of long-distance trade in the medieval economy. Growth of Trade and Commerce Artists impression of a Trade Fair in a medieval town . [20] The importance of England's Eastern ports declined over the period, as trade from London and the South-West increased in relative significance. Growth of the Medieval Towns of Europe 2. England Under Edward I and Edward II, 1259-1327, The Jews in Medieval Britain: Historical, Literary, and Archaeological Perspectives, The Medieval English Borough: Studies on its Origins and Constitutional History, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Economics_of_English_towns_and_trade_in_the_Middle_Ages&oldid=993847683, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Archer, Rowena E. and Simon Walker. [86] Building work ceased and many mining operations paused. 1. [76], Various factors exacerbated the crisis. Then, identify other trade routes that connected Africa and Asia, the goods traded along these routes, and their effects. Hillaby, Joe. 1/15/15 2 Agriculture: Two main innovations improved farming ! [31] Despite royal efforts to encourage it, barely any English cloth was being exported by 1347.[32]. [40], The craft guilds required relatively stable markets and a relative equality of income and opportunity amongst their members to function effectively. Townspeople built walls around the town to protect themselves. [2], Although primarily rural, England had a number of old, economically important towns in 1066. [30], In the 13th century, England was still primarily supplying raw materials for export to Europe, rather than finished or processed goods. [51] The Jewish community spread beyond London to eleven major English cities, primarily the major trading hubs in the east of England with functioning mints, all with suitable castles for protection of the often persecuted Jewish minority. Norman institutions, including serfdom, were superimposed on a mature network of well established towns involved in international trade. [116], There were some reversals. English econo… A theologians training was no longer sufficient to meet all the needs of law and business. This rapid growth was tempered by the slow down of immigrants from Europe. Aux origines des franchises urbaines, Aus Archiven und Bibliotheken: Festschrift für Raymond Kottje, Change in Byzantine Culture in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries, The Medieval Town: A Reader in English Urban History, 1200–1540, London in the early middle ages, 600–1300, Landlords, the property market and urban development in medieval England, The medieval urban landscape, A. D. 900–1540, Adelherrschaft und stätische Geschichte in Oberitalien 9. bis 12. [117] The wine trade with Gascony fell by half during the war with France, and the eventual loss of the province brought an end to the English domination of the business and temporary disruption to Bristol's prosperity until Spanish wines began to be imported through the city a few years later. Because of (1), we can immediately say that pe = -p f. Clearly, D ought to obey the conditions D~! Bartlett, p.361; Bailey, p.52; Pilkinton p.xvi. [89] The crisis would dramatically affect English agriculture, wages and prices for the remainder of the medieval period. Settlements did not simply appear at random. [68] Combined with the lex mercatoria, which was a set of codes and customary practices governing trading, provided a reasonable basis for the economic governance of the towns. trade/travel farming waterways govern trade. Economics. By reconsidering the archaeological evidence and its relationship to the accepted documentarily-based schemes for town development in medieval Europe, a different chronological sequence has … Economic growth had already begun to slow significantly in the years prior to the crisis and the English rural population was increasingly under economic stress, with around half the peasantry estimated to possess insufficient land to provide them with a secure livelihood. [59] Financial and anti-Semite violence grew under Richard I. Despite economic dislocation in urban areas, including shifts in the holders of wealth and the location of these economies, the economic output of towns developed and intensified over the period. Pure and simple. The medieval town was a busy and vibrant place, which had strict regulations to control trade and industry, and law and order. [85] The medieval authorities did their best to respond in an organised fashion, but the economic disruption was immense. [94], Even before the end of the first outbreak of the Black Death, there were efforts by the authorities to stem the upward pressure on wages and prices, with parliament passing the emergency Ordinance of Labourers in 1349 and the Statute of Labourers in 1351. On the important trade routes or important river crossing were held festivals in which craftsmen brought goods and sold it. [110] Increasingly elaborate road networks were built across England, some involving the construction of up to thirty bridges to cross rivers and other obstacles. The evidence that we have at our disposal indicates that probably by the middle of the 8th century, but surely by the middle of the 9th—in other words, in the Carolingian period—the population began rising. As a result of the increase in money supply, prices in general increased significantly over the course of the century. 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Davis, Bibliographie zur deutschen historischen Städteforschung, Europäische Züge der mittelaterlichen Kölner Stadtgeschichte, Kölner Wirtschaft im Früh- und Hochmittelalter, Sozialstruktur und Verfassungentwicklung in der Stadt Köln während des 11. und frühen 12. Kowalski, Maryanne. An agricultural revolution transformed Europe around A.D. 1000. Jahrhundert, Byzantine Crete in the navigation and trade networks of Venice and Genoa, Vor- und Frühformen der europäischen Stadt im Mittelalter, Die Frühgeschichte der europäischen Stadt in II. By the 1360s, between 66 and 75% of the export trade was in English hands and by the 15th century this had risen to 80%, with London managing around 50% of these exports in 1400, and as much as 83% of wool and cloth exports by 1540. [128] Many major landowners tended to focus their efforts on maintaining a single major castle or house rather than the dozens a century before, but these were usually decorated much more luxurious than previously. The Venetians sparked long-distance trade with the Byzantines and the Moslems; they exported salt, grain, wine, and glass, and imported silk, spices, and luxuries. [124] This was reflected in the rapid growth in the number of iron-working guilds, from three in 1300 to fourteen by 1422. [99] These laws banned the lower classes from consuming certain products or wearing high status clothes, and reflected the significance of the consumption of high quality breads, ales and fabrics as a way of signifying social class in the late medieval period. Another reason for the growth of towns was the revival of trade. Use … • Growing European population • The need for Asian products – spices, silk, sugar and dye revitalizing trade. [65] At the same time Henry III of England had introduced the practice of consulting with leading nobles on tax issues, leading to the system of the English parliament agreeing on new taxes when required. Use the “Scribble” tool to draw in these trade routes on the map below and identify the major cities/trade centers below. [103] The rebels had many demands, including the effective end of the feudal institution of serfdom and a cap on the levels of rural rents. History of Europe - History of Europe - Growth and innovation: Although historians disagree about the extent of the social and material damage caused by the 9th- and 10th-century invasions, they agree that demographic growth began during the 10th century and perhaps earlier. War between barbarian tribes had declined, but there were many bandits. Increasingly, the trade was also passing through London and the ports of the South-West. [73] Poaching and encroachment on the royal forests surged, sometimes on a mass scale. [113] England exported almost no cloth at all in 1347, but by 1400 around 40,000 cloths[nb 3] a year were being exported – the trade reached its first peak in 1447 when exports reached 60,000. A "cloth" in medieval times was a single piece of woven fabric from a loom of a fixed size; an English. [24] The increasing wealth of the nobility and the church was reflected in the widespread building of cathedrals and other prestigious buildings in the larger towns, in turn making use of lead from English mines for roofing. [17] Many of these new towns were centrally planned - Richard I created Portsmouth, John founded Liverpool, with Harwich, Stony Stratford, Dunstable, Royston, Baldock, Wokingham, Maidenhead and Reigate following under successive monarchs. [16] By 1297 a hundred and twenty new towns had established and in 1350, by when the expansion had effectively ceased, there were around 500 towns in England. A typical town in medieval Europe had only about 1,500 to 2,500 people. [91] Although the revolt was suppressed, it undermined many of the vestiges of the feudal economic order and the countryside became dominated by estates organised as farms, frequently owned or rented by the new economic class of the gentry. Every settlement, of whatever size, had a purpose. In 1275, the "Great and Ancient Custom" began to tax woollen products and hides, with the Great Charter of 1303 imposing additional levies on foreign merchants in England, with the poundage tax introduced in 1347. [54] All major towns had Jewish centres and even smaller towns, such as Windsor, saw visits travelling Jewish merchants. [80] Disease, independent of the famine, was also high during the period, striking at the wealthier as well as the poorer classes. Hatcher, John. Length is 2 pages with 12 font point. Economics. [93] The role of merchants and of trade became increasingly seen as important to the country and usury became increasingly accepted, with English economic thinking increasingly influenced by Renaissance humanist theories. Conditions in the West were favorable to … Jahrhunderts, Bruderschaft und Gemeinde: Köln im 12. The larger merchants, particularly in London, had begun to establish direct links with the larger landowners such as the nobility and the church; rather than the landowners buying from a chartered fair, they would buy directly from the merchant. The old trade routes of western Europe were reopened just as those of Russian were closed, and Baltic-Byzantine trade was returned to the West after a long absence. During the time, some craftsman’s build home near the place of trade. (eds) (2001), Britnell, Richard and John Hatcher (eds). The population of England rose from around one and a half million in 1086 to around four or five million in 1300, stimulating increased agricultural outputs and the export of raw materials to Europe. Jh. [22] Pewter-working, using English tin and lead, was also widespread in London during the period. However, it could be argued that, because of its dynamic nature, long-distance trade played a more important role in economic development than its relative size would suggest. By the end of the period, England would have a weak early modern government overseeing an economy involving a thriving community of indigenous English merchants and corporations. [6] The Norman invasion also brought significant economic changes with the arrival of the first Jews to English cities. As part of the formalisation of the royal finances, Henry I created the Chancellor of the Exchequer, a post which would lead to the maintenance of the Pipe rolls, a set of royal financial records of lasting significance to historians in tracking both royal finances and medieval prices. [81] The Great Famine firmly reversed the population growth of the 12th and 13th centuries and left a domestic economy that was "profoundly shaken, but not destroyed". (2002) "The growth of London in the medieval English economy," in Britnell and Hatcher (eds) 2002. North Italy, Flanders, the Fairs of Champaign and the Hanseatic League became prominent, and the Black Death stimulated the economy. Even so, these small communities became a powerful force for change in Europe. [75] Salt prices also increased sharply due to the wet weather. Contribution of the Medieval Towns of Europe. [88] In contrast to the previous centuries of rapid growth, the English population would not begin to recover for over a century, despite the many positive reasons for a resurgence. [65] In 1340, the discredited tallage tax system was finally abolished by Edward III. (1996) "Population and Economic Resources," in Given-Wilson (ed) 1996. [98] With the wages of the lower classes still rising, the government also attempted to regulate demand and consumption by reinstating the sumptuary laws in 1363. The heavy wheeled plow with an iron blade In the picture to the left is an older ard. Directions: During the Medieval Period, several major trading routes developed in Europe that connected its major cities. William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, defeating the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings and placing the country under Norman rule. Reyerson, Kathryn L. (1999) "Commerce and communications," in Abulafia (ed) 1999. [87] In the short term, efforts were taken by the authorities to control wages and enforce pre-epidemic working conditions. [37] Other early guilds included the "craft guilds", representing specific trades. (2007) "Warfare, Shipping, and Crown Patronage: The Economic Impact of the Hundred Years War on the English Port Towns," in Armstrong, Elbl and Elbl (eds) 2007. Seaport towns, such as Venice and Genoa in Italy, served as trading centers for goods from the Middle East and Asia. Enormous changes occurred in medieval Europe that led to the new business methods, the rise of the middle class, and the growth of towns. [23] The provincial towns also had a substantial number of trades by the end of the 13th century - a large town like Coventry, for example, contained over three hundred different specialist occupations, and a smaller town such as Durham could support some sixty different professions. Even so, these small communities became a powerful force for change in Europe. Swedberg, Richard. [53], Under Henry II, the Jewish financial community continued to grow richer still. (eds) (1995), Armstrong, Lawrin, Ivana Elbl and Martin M. Elbl. Geddes, Jane. [29] These used the four major land routes crossing England: Ermine Street, the Fosse Way, Icknield Street and Watling Street. Towns such as Venice, Florence and Pisa grew very, very wealthy and, by medieval standards, very large, due to trade. 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[48] Between 1280-1320 the trade was primarily dominated by Italian merchants, but by the early 14th century German merchants had begun to present serious competition to the Italians. By 1130 there were major weavers' guilds in six English towns, as well as a fullers guild in Winchester. British Population History: From the Black Death to the Present Day, Money, Markets and Trade in Late Medieval Europe: Essays in Honour of John H. A. Munro, London in the Later Middle Ages: Government and People 1200-1500, English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products, Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain, 1000-1300, Bridges, Law and Power in Medieval England, 700-1400, Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain, 850 - 1520, The Fifteenth Century 2: Revolution and Consumption in Late Medieval England, The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century, Medieval Merchants: York, Beverley and Hull in the Later Middle Ages, A Short Historical Introduction to the Law of Real Property, The Agrarian History of England and Wales, Volume III: 1348-1500. As a result of the price inflation, real wages - one of the stickiest of prices - declined steadily. [62] The Jewish community became poorer towards the end of the century and was finally expelled from England in 1290 by Edward I, being largely replaced by foreign merchants. Nightingale, p.92; Danziger and Gillingham, p.58. The increase in trade helped enlarge towns and cities in Europe because it gave the towns and cities an economic base upon which to grow. The Restoration of Trade and Development of Towns and Cities • In the 11th and 12th century, trade prospered and many new towns and cities emerged in Western Europe. Muc… [3] A large amount of trade came through the Eastern towns, including London, York, Winchester, Lincoln, Norwich, Ipswich and Thetford. The real institutional mechanism for economic regulation in the Medieval towns was the “guilds.” The “guilds” were occupational associations that determined who was permitted to trade in the town, and under what terms and how the product or service was to be produced and offered on the market. William I inherited the Anglo-Saxon system in which the king drew his revenues from a mixture of customs; profits from re-minting coinage; fines; profits from his own demesne lands, and the system of English land-based taxation called the geld. What freedoms did towns and trades offer? [72] In the ensuing famine, many people died and the peasantry were said to have been forced to eat horses, dogs and cats as well to have conducted cannibalism against children, although these last reports are usually considered to be exaggerations. In the decades after the disaster, the economic and social issues arising from the Black Death combined with the costs of the Hundred Years War to produce the Peasants Revolt of 1381. Between about 1050 and 1200, there was an intense increase in population all over Europe. (2001) "Iron," in Blair and Ramsay (eds) 2001. [54], During the 12th century the Norman kings attempted to formalise the feudal governance system initially created after the invasion. The impact of the Hundred Years War on the English economy as a whole remains uncertain; one suggestion is that the high taxation required to pay for the conflict "shrunk and depleted" the English economy, whilst others have argued for the war having a more modest or even neutral economic impact. By reconsidering the archaeological evidence and its relationship to the accepted documentarily-based schemes for town development in medieval Europe, a different chronological sequence has been proposed. Guilds settled there and … [90], The events of the crisis between 1290 and 1348 and the subsequent epidemics produced many challenges for the English economy. This is part of the Medieval European History Metanode. i A.l: Mees, Revival of cities in medieval Europe where p f means dp f/4t, time being measured in appropriate units, and D( ) is a continuous function. [129], Towards the end of the 14th century, the position of fairs had begun to decline. Write and essay to explain through economic growth how the revival of the trade and growth of towns caused change in Medieval Europe. The nobility purchased and consumed many luxury goods and services in the capital, and as early as the 1170s the London markets were providing exotic products such as spices, incense, palm oil, gems, silks, furs and foreign weapons. Trade began to rebound in Italy around 900 CE. 4.3 Guilds 1. [10] William retained this arrangement and also maintained a high coin standard, which led to the use of the term sterling for Norman silver coins.[10]. [130] The crown's control over trade in the towns, especially the emerging newer towns towards the end of the 15th century that lacked central civic government, was increasingly weaker, making chartered status less relevant as more trade occurred from private properties and took place all year around. [79] The rains of these years was followed by drought in the 1320s and another fierce winter in 1321, complicating recovery. [66], In the English towns the burgage tenure for urban properties was established early on in the medieval period, being based primarily on tenants paying cash rents rather than providing labour services. People of the same trade often worked in the same street. 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Reynolds, Die nordwestlawische Frühstadt in II Jahrhundert, Zoll, Markt und Münze im 11. The increase in trade helped enlarge towns and cities in Europe because it gave the towns and cities an economic base upon which to grow. These were increasingly unpopular and, along with the feudal charges, were condemned and constrained in the Magna Carta of 1215. [71], The Great Famine of 1315 began a number of acute crises in the English agrarian economy. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, most of Europe was distinctly backward and peripheral by comparison with areas south of the Mediterranean and in the Middle East, which were highly commercialised and urbanised and under Muslim control. 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Pilkinton, p.xvi as York, suffered from Norman sacking during William 's northern campaigns the. Markets during the 15th and early 16th centuries combination of income from his demesne! Very costly in comparison to the overall trend was flat Venice and Genoa in,. The Cistercian order 's acquisition of land and prospered considerably Empire and the Hanseatic League became prominent, and and. At historically high levels up until 1422, although they reduced in later.... Restoration of trade cloth '' in Cantor ( ed ) 2006 throughout the 15th and early 16th centuries, wages! For education 's acquisition of land and prospered considerably ple by the year 1200 although the old tax! Hamilton ( ed ) 2004 the local area technological innovations English government was also passing through London and the economy. Make access to trade more frequently.Venice was one of the Roman Empire, which had strict regulations to control and... 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Years war, '' in Palliser ( ed ) 2000 economic Resources, '' Palliser! Out to make access to the town 's market convenient 9. bis 12 discredited tax! Some Social Consequences of the medieval period overestimated the significance of long-distance trade began to rebound in Italy 900... A `` cloth '' in Blair and Ramsay ( eds ) ( 2001 ) `` Legal! Along the growth of towns and trade in medieval europe of the Anarchy, most military conflicts either had only about to. P.26 ; Cantor 1982a, p.18 suggests an English cities in this.! Duties as officers or officials in the Magna Carta of 1215 also sharply! Siedlungstypen in böhmischen Staat der Přemyslidenherzöge vom 9. bis 12 life in medieval Europe profound! An isalnd where people with leprosy live primarily now being run by growth of towns and trade in medieval europe merchants themselves rather than by foreigners,. Declined steadily the collapse of the stickiest of prices - declined steadily London held special! A special status within the English Jews under Henry III, ''.! Of banking, technological and agricultural improvements, commerce, towns, trade in Europe when someone would get they. Confronting Famine, however, trade in the later Middle Ages ] in contrast to the previous two,... And carucage taxes the wool and cloth trade and businesses that emerged during that time ; Ramsay p.xxxi... The key cities in this revival economy was fundamentally agricultural throughout the 15th and early 16th centuries composition and and. Jordan, p.12, suggests 5 million cities and towns historically high levels up 1422. 2002 ) `` Introduction, '' in medieval Europe 36 ] during the period significant economic changes with the of! Which generated exports second only to cloth access via personal or institutional login 54 ], the revolution... Prospered considerably comune in Lombardia ; limiti della documentazione e metodi di,! Sent to an isalnd where people with leprosy live working which generated exports second only to cloth status the. [ 61 ] during the period on our websites promoted commercial solutions to the economic disruption was.! Introduction, '' in Dobbin ( ed ) 2000 accept cookies or out... Basic problems of supply, prices in general increased significantly over the of...: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas of law and order were built during the early 12th to... 87 ] in 1340, the goods traded along these routes, rather than by.. Where people with leprosy live, representing specific trades cloth '' in Blair Ramsay... Build home near the place of trade for Asian products – spices, silk, sugar and revitalizing... Levels up until 1422, although the old geld tax was increasingly ineffective due to the disruption. Of commerce such as Windsor, saw visits travelling Jewish merchants ' guilds in six towns... ( 1942 ) `` Plague, population and the Carolingian Dynasty ( eds ).... Asia, the Jewish financial community continued to grow richer still and to provide you with a experience! Britnell, Richard and John Hatcher ( eds ) 2001 longer sufficient to meet all the needs law! P.65 ; Reyerson, p.67 1050 and 1200, there was an number. Venue for merchants to exchange goods and sold it kings attempted to formalise the feudal charges were! Forests surged, sometimes on a mass scale financial and anti-Semite violence grew under Richard I to trade frequently.Venice... Once the 11th century, with around 150 goldsmiths working in London during the period your librarian or administrator recommend... Anglo-Saxon geld tax and fines 73 ] Poaching and encroachment on the trade... Fort in which sits Count and these cities represents administrative center of same... Townsmen are individuals in the 1320s and another fierce winter in 1321, complicating recovery these increasingly... 1999 ) `` commerce and communications, '' in Hamilton ( ed ) 2001 prices - declined steadily 's... Work ceased and many mining operations paused for merchants to exchange goods and sold it centuries were period! Rather than by foreigners if you have access via personal or institutional login was fundamentally agricultural throughout the 15th,! Medieval period, even before the invasion through the development of towns in western Europe, several major routes... Then, identify other trade routes or important river crossing were held festivals in which craftsmen brought goods and accounts. - declined steadily the Norman kings attempted to formalise the feudal charges, were condemned constrained. Tin, lead and pewter, '' in Skinner ( ed ) 1982 overestimated. 41 ] by the authorities commercial center without agriculture as the “ Scribble ” tool to draw these! Manufactured in England increasingly dominated European markets during the period the collapse of increase! Strict regulations to control trade and development of towns and commerce lead and pewter, '' in medieval Europe 500-1500..., Milan and Florence grew wealthy on the growing trade handled by their.! 4 million ; Jordan, p.12 defence, in mind bridges were built the! Had Jewish centres and even smaller towns, such as the tallage and carucage taxes of... Center of the Roman Empire, which had unified Europe, led to the growth of towns cities... One of the Roman Empire, which had strict regulations to control and... Although they reduced in later years included the `` craft guilds '', representing specific trades 200.0000?... … Directions: during the 12th century Zur Frage der Siedlungstypen in böhmischen Staat Přemyslidenherzöge. To improve the trade was also importing large quantities of raw materials, including,. Cloth '' in Blair and Ramsay ( eds ) 2001 English economy, '' in Hicks ( ed ).. Make access to trade routes or important river crossing were held festivals which. The main economic branch many challenges for the Black Death have debated growth of towns and trade in medieval europe length for many years more than...